Computational Approaches to Narrative Suspense

Thanks to Dr. R. Michael Young for his class CSC582, Fall 2003, and Dr. Mark Riedl and Dr. Brad Mott for their wonderful bibliographies.
Keywords: planning, story, mediation, agent, emotion, intention, narrative, comprehension, NLP, pedagogy, AI

Mediation / Interactive Drama / User Interaction

Galyean, T.A. (1995). Narrative Guidance of Interactivity. Ph.D. Dissertation, MIT Media Arts and Sciences Program.
NOTE: Thanks to Dr. R. Michael Young Morningstar, Chip and Farmer, F. Randall. (1990). The lessons of Lucasfilm's Habitat. In (M. Benedikt, ed.) Cyberspace: First Steps. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.
(University of Piraeus)
Sgouros, N.M. (1999). Dynamic generation, management, and resolution of interactive plots. Artificial Intelligence, 107, 29-62.
(University of Edinburgh)
Bailey, P. (1999). Searching for storiness: story-generation from a reader's perspective. In M. Mateas & P. Sengers (Eds.) AAAI Fall Symposium on Narrative Intelligence.
Mei Si, Stacy C. Marsella, and David V. Pynadath (2005). Thespian: using multi-agent fitting to craft interactive drama. In Proceedings of the fourth international joint conference on Autonomous agents and multiagent systems, pages 21-28.
To support easy authoring, Thespian uses personality profile composed of goals and their weights. With desirable story paths, fitting algorithm adjust the weight and goal list for a role of a character.

Computational Story Generation / Summary

David Christian and R. Michael Young. (2003). Comparing Cognitive and Computational Models of Narrative Structure. In the Proceedings of the National Conference of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence.
Niehaus, James and Young, R. Michael. (2005). Toward improving recall and comprehension in automatically generated narratives. In Working Notes of the Workshop on Narrative Learning Environments at the Twelfth International Conference on Artificial Ingelligence and Education Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Riedl, M. O. (2004). Narrative Planning: Balancing Plot and Character. Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Computer Science, North Carolina State University.
Riedl, M. O. and Young, R. M. (2004). An intent-driven planner for multi-agent story generation. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi Agent Systems.
Riedl, M.O, Saretto, C.J., & Young, R.M. (2003). Managing interaction between users and agents in a multi-agent storytelling environment. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems.
Young, R. M. Story and Discourse: A bipartite model of narrative generation in virtual worlds,
Meehan, J.R. (1976). The Metanovel: Writing Stories by Computer. Ph.D. Dissertation, Yale University.
Mateas, M. (2002). Interactive Drama, Art, and Artificial Intelligence. Ph.D. Thesis. Technical Report CMU-CS-02-206, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA. December 2002.
Mateas, M. and Stern, A. (2003) Facade: An Experiment in Building a Fully-Realized Interactive Drama. In Game Developer's Conference: Game Design Track, San Jose, California, March 2003.
Mateas and Stern. (2002). Architecture, Authorial Idioms and Early Observations off the Interacttiive Drama Facade, Carnegie-Mellon University Technical Report CMU-CS-02-198
(University of Teesside)
Cavazza, M., Charles, F. and Mead, S.J. (2002). Interacting with Virtual Characters in Interactive Storytelling. ACM Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, Bologna, Italy, pp. 318-325.
Cavazza, M., Charles, F. and Mead, S.J. (2002). Character-Based Interactive Storytelling. IEEE Intelligent Systems 17(4): 17-24.
Cavazza, M., Charles, F. and Mead, S.J. (2002). Planning Characters' Behaviour in Interactive Storytelling. The Journal of Visualization and Computer Animation 2002; 13: pp. 121-131
(Columbia U)
Lebowitz, M. (1984). Creating characters in a story-telling universe. Poetics, 13, 171-194.
Lebowitz, M.(1985). Story-telling as planning and learning. Poetics, 14, 483-502.
Bates, J. (1992). Virtual reality, art, and entertainment. Presence: The Journal of Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1(1), pp. 133-138.
Kelso, M. T., Weyhrauch, P., and Bates, J. (1993). Dramatic presence. Presence: The Journal of Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2(1), 1-15.
Mateas, M. and Sengers, P. . (1999). Narrative Intelligence: An Introduction to the NI Symposium. In M. Mateas and P. Sengers (Eds.), Working notes of the Narrative Intelligence Symposium , AAAI Fall Symposium Series. Menlo Park: Calif.: AAAI Press.
Perlin and Goldberg. (1996). Improv: A System for Scripting Interactive Actors in Virtual Worlds, in Procedings of, I think, SIGGRAPH 96.
Darmstadt, Germany Theune, M., Faas, S., Nijholt, A., & Heylen, D. (2003). The virtual storyteller: Story creation by intelligent agents. In Proceedings of the First International Conference for Interactive Digital Storytelling and Entertainment, March 2003.
O Schneider, N Braun, G Habinger. (2003). Storylining Suspense: An Authoring Environment for Structuring Non-Linear Interactive Narratives. Proceedings of WSCG, 2003.
Story-basedPinhanez, Mase and Bobick. (1997). Interval scripts: a design paradigm for sotry-based interactive systems, in the Proceedings of the Conference on Human Factors and Computing Systems, 1997, pages 287-294.
Propp's Morphology Diaz-Agudo, B., Gervas, P., and Peinado, F. (2004). A case based reasoning approach to story plot generation. In P. A. Gonzalez-Calero and P. Funk (Eds), Advances in Case-Based Reasoning. In Proceedings of the 7th European Conference on Case Based Reasoning, volume 3155 of Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence, pages 142-156, Madrid, Spain, 2004. Springer Verlag.
Sjuzhet Level
Birte L. (2005). Narratological Knowledge for Natural Language Generation. In Graham Wilcock, Kristiina Jokinen, Chris Mellish, and Ehud Reiter, editors: Proceedings of the 10th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (= ENLG 2005), Aberdeen, Scotland, August 8-10. 91-100.
need for bridging story generator and NLG, narratively enhanced NLG system. Representation of narrative levels using frames. Discourse graph incorporating RST-like schemas, which describes relations between text segments. Shows one-level narrative processing examples
Summary Giora, R. and Shen, Y. (1994). Degrees of Narrativity and Strategies of Semantic Reduction. Poetics 1994;22, pp. 447-58.
Minerva Yeung Boon-Lock Yeo Bede Liu (1996). Extracting story units from long programs for video browsing and navigation. Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Conference on Multimedia Computing and Systems, 1996, p. 296-305.
Mark T. Maybury and Andrew E. Merlino. Multimedia Summaries of Broadcast News. Intelligent Information Systems, 1997. IIS '97. Proceedings 8-10 Dec. 1997 Page(s):442 - 449.
L Capus and N Tourigny. (2003). A case-based reasoning approach to support story summarization. International journal of intelligent systems, 2003, vol:18 iss:8 pg:877.
Inderjeet Mani. (2004). Narrative Summarization. TALN. vol. 45.
Wendy G. Lehnert. (1981). Plot units and narrative summarization. Cognitive science. 1981 vol:5 iss:4 pg:293
Book-length studiesJanet H. Murray, (1998). Hamlet on the Holodeck: The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace. The MIT Press.

Story Understanding

Computer Rich Cullingford. (1977). SAM: a program that uses world knowledge to understand. ACM SIGART Bulletin, Issue 61, Pages: 53 - 54.
Mueller, Erik T. 2003. Story understanding through multi-representation model construction. In Graeme Hirst & Sergei Nirenburg (Eds.), Text Meaning: Proceedings of the HLT-NAACL 2003 Workshop (pp. 46-53). East Stroudsburg, PA: Association for Computational Linguistics.

Discourse / Media

Game/Entertainment R. Michael Young. (2004). Internet-Based Games. In the Practical Handbook of Internet Computing, M. Singh, Ed. Pages 11-1 to 11-14, CRC Press, 2004.
Laird, John and Mike Van Lent. (2001). Interactive Computer Games: Human-level AI's Killer Application. AI Magazine, 2001.
John E. Laird and Michael van Lent. The Role of AI in Computer Game Genres.
Henry Jenkins. (MIT). Game Design as Narrative Architecture
Game devlopers are rather narrative architects than storytellers. Players make stories while deciphering information that space containts.
Camera Control Jhala, Arnav and Young, R. Michael. (2005). A Discourse Planning Approach for Cinematic Camera Control for Narratives in Virtual Environments. The Proceedings of the National Conference of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence.
Bares, W.H. & Lester, J.C. (1999). Intelligent Multi-shot Visualization Intefaces for Dynamic 3D Worlds. Proceedings of the 1999 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, Los Angeles, 1999. pp. 119-126.
He, L., Cohen, M.F., & Salesin, D.H. (1996). The Virtual Cinematographer: A Paradigm for Automatic Real-Time Camera Control and Directing. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH '96, in Computer Graphics Proceeings, Annual Conference Series, 217-224.
Christianson, D., Anderson, S., He, L., Salesin, D., Weld, D., & Cohen M. (1996). Declarative Camera Control for Automatic Cinematography. Proceedings of AAAI-96, Portland OR, 1996. pp. 148-155.
Drucker, S.M. & Zeltzer, D. (1994). Intelligent camera control in a virtual environment. Proceedings of Graphics Interface '94.
Presentation Elisabeth Andre, Thomas Rist. (1996). Coping with Temporal Constraints in Multimedia Presentation Planning. 1996.
William H. Bares James C. Lester. (1997). Realtime Generation of Customized 3D Animated Explanations for Knowledge-Based Learning Environments. Proceedings of the Thirteenth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence
Michele Zhou and Steve Feiner. (1997). Top-Down Hierarchical Planning of Coherent Visual Discourse, IUI 1997.
Michele Zhou. Two-way Adaptation for Robust Input Interpretation in Practical Multimodal Conversation Systems
Michele Zhou. A Graph-Matching Approach to Dynamic Media Allocation in Intelligent Multimedia Interfaces.
NarrationElisabeth Andre, Kim Binsted, Kumiko Tanaka-Ishii, Sean Luke, Gerd Herzog, Thomas Rist. (2000). Three RoboCup Simulation League Commentator Systems. AI Magazine, 2000.

Agent / Emotion

BDIGeorgeff, M., Pell, B., Pollack, M., Tambe, M. and Wooldridge, M. (1999). The Belief-Desire-Intention model of agency Proceedings of Agents, Theories, Architectures and Languages (ATAL).
Affective Computing Knobloch, Silvia, Patzig, Grit, Mende Anna-Maria and Hastall, Matthias. (2004). Affective News: Effects of Discourse Structure in Narratives on Suspense, Curiosity . Communication Research.2004; (31), pp. 259-287.
J Gratch, S Marsella. (2004). A Domain-independent Framework for Modeling Emotion. Journal of Cognitive Systems Research, 2004.
Micahel G. Dyer. (1983). The role of affect in narratives. Cognitive science, yr:1983 vol:7 iss:3 pg:211
Mission Rehearsal, EMA
Jonathan Gratch and Stacy Marsella. Evaluating a computational model of emotion. Journal of Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems (Special issue on the best of AAMAS 2004)
Marsella, Johnson and LeBore. (2000). Interactive Pedagogical Drama. 4th International Conference on Autonomous Agents, 2000.
Theory Scherer, K. R. (1999). Appraisal theory. In T. Dalgleish & M. J. Power (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp.637-663). Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Richard S. Lazarus. The Cognition-Emotion Debate: A Bit of History. In T. Dalgleish & M. J. Power (Eds.), Handbook of cognition and emotion (pp.3-19). Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Representation Fikes, R.E., & Nilsson, N.J. (1971). STRIPS: A new approach to the application of theorem proving to problem solving. Artificial Intelligence, 2, 189-208.
Sacerdoti, E.D. (1977). A Structure for Plans and Behavior. New York: Elsevier.
Pollack, M. (1992). The User of Plans. Artificial Intelligence. (57)1: 43-68.
Wilensky, R. (1981). Meta-Planning: Representing and using knowledge about planning in problem solving and natural language understanding. Cognitive Science, 5, 197-233.
David McAllester and David Rosenblitt. (1991). Systematic Nonlinear Planning. In Proceedings of the Ninth National Conference on Artificial Intelligence (AAAI-91), vol. 2, Anaheim, California, USA, pages 634--639.
Partial-Order Planning S. Kambhampati, C.A. Knoblock, and Y. Qiang. (1993). Planning as refinement search: a unified framework for evaluating design tradeoffs in partial-order planning. Artificial Intelligence, 76:167-238.
Penberthy, J.S. & Weld, D. (1992). UCPOP: A Sound, Complete, Partial-Order Planner for ADL. In Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, Cambridge MA, 1992.
Weld, D. (1994). An introduction to least commitment planning. AI Magazine, 15(4), 27-61.
Young, R. M. and Moore, J. D. (1994) DPOCL: A Principled Approach to Discourse Planning. In the Proceedings of the Seventh International Workshop on Text Generation, Kennebunkport, ME.
Young, R. M. (1999). Notes on the Use of Plan Structures in the Creation of Interactive Plot. In The Working Notes of the AAAI Fall Symposium on Narrative Intelligence, Cape Cod, MA.
Young, R. M., Pollack, M. E., and Moore, J. D. (1994). Decomposition and causality in partial order planning. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on AI and Planning Systems, 188-193.
Young, R.M., Pollack, M.E., & Moore, J.D. (1994). Decomposition and causality in partial-order planning. In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Planning Systems , Chicago IL, 1994.
Young, R. M. (1999). Using Grice's Maxim of Quantity to Select the Content of Plan Descriptions, Artificial Intelligence, No. 115. pp. 215-256.


Corpus Barbara Di Eugenio, Johanna D. Moore, and Massimo Paolucci. (1997) Learning Features that Predict Cue Usage. In Proceedings of the Thirty-Fifth Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics and Eighth Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pages 80-87.
Yukiko I. Nakano and Tsuneaki Kato. (1998). Cue Phrase Selection in Instruction Dialogue Using Machine Learning. Workshop on Content Visualization and Intermedia Representations (CVIR'98), pages 100-106, 1998.
Vander Linden, K. and Di Eugenio, B. (1996). Learning micro-planning rules for preventative expressions. In Proceddings of the Eighth International Natural Language Generation Workshop, pages 11-20, Sussex, UK.
Hartley, A. and Paris, C. (1996). Two Sources of Control over the Generation of Software Instructions. Proceedings of the 34th conference on Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 192-1199.
Nagata, M. And Morimoto, T. (1994). First steps toward statistical modeling of dialogue to predict the speech act type of the next utterance. Speech Communication 15, 193-203.
Surface Realization Callaway, C. B. and Lester, J. C.(2002). Narrative prose generation. Artificial Intelligence vol. 139, pp. 213-252.
Elhadad, M. and Robin, J. (1996). An overview of SURGE: A reusable comprehensive syntactic realization component. Technical Report Technical Report 96-03, Dept of Mathematics and Computer Science, Ben Gurion University, Beer Sheva, Israel.
NLUJames Allen. Natural Language Understanding.
NLG Dale, R and Reiter, E. (1995). Computational Interpretations of the Gricean Maxims in the Generation of Referring Expressions. Cognitive Science, 19(2), pp. 233-263.
Mellish, C. and Evans, R. (1989). Natural Language Generation From Plans. Computational Linguistics,Vol. 15(4), pages 233-249.
Daniel Ansari. (1995). Deriving Procedural and Warning Instructions from Device and Environment Models. Technical report CSRI-329, Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto.
Aone, C and Bennett, W. (1995). Evaluating Automated and Manual Acquisition of Anaphora Resolution Strategies. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the ACL, pages 122-129.
Discourse Ronald A. Cole, Joseph Mariani, Hans Uszkoreit, Annie Zaenen, Victor Zue (Eds). Survey of the State of the Art in Human Language Technology.
BJ Grosz, ME Pollack, CL Sidner. (1989). Discourse. Foundations of Cognitive Science, 1989.
Johanna D. Moore and Cecile L.Paris. (1994). Planning Text for Advisory Dialogues: Capturing Intentional and Rhetorical Information. Computational Linguistics, vol. 19(4), pages 651-694.
Eduard H. Hovy. (1993). Automated Discourse Generation Using Discourse Structure Relations. Artificial Intelligence, vol. 63(1-2), pages 341-385.
William Mann and Sandra Thompson. (1988). Rhetorical Structure Theory: Towards a Functional theory of text organization. TEXT, 8(3).
nucleus-satellite discourse relations. Different segments are related. provides relational schemas for contrast, circumstance, motivation, enablement, sequence, joint, elaboration, background, evidence, justify, volitional cause, non-volitional cause, volitional result, non-volitional result, purpose, condition, otherwise, antithesis, concession, interpretation, evlauation, restatement, summary Johanna D. Moore and Martha E. Pollack. (1992). A Problem for RST: The Need for Multi-Level Discourse Analysis. Computational Linguistics, Vol. 18 (4), pages. 537-544.
MA Walker, O Rambow. (1994). The role of cognitive modeling in achieving communicative intentions. Proceedings of the Seventh International Workshop on Natural Generation Workshop.
RH Thomason. 1990. Accommodation, meaning, and implicature: Interdisciplinary foundations for pragmatics. Intentions in Communication, 1990
P Martin, F Crabbe, S Adams, E Baatz, N. (1996). SpeechActs: a spoken-language framework. IEEE Computer 29, 7, 33-40.
Litman, D. J. and Allen, J. F. (1987). A plan recognition model for subdialogues in conversation. Cognitive Science 11, 163-200.
Lambert and Carberry. (1992). Modeling negotiation subdialogues. ACL92, 193-200.
Singh, M. (1991). Intentions, Commitements, and Rationality. In Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci).
Singh, M. (1991). A Critical Examination of the Cohen-Levesque. In Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (CogSci).


Comprehension Emmott, C. (1997). Narrative Comprehension: Text, Knowledge and Inference Making. Narrative Comprehension: A Discourse Perspective, pp. 3-19. Oxford University Press.
Graesser, A.C., and Wiemer-Hastings, K. (1999). Situation models and concepts in story comprehension. In Goldman, S.R., Graesser, A.C., and van den Broek, P. (Eds). Narrative comprehension, causality, and coherence. pp. 77-92. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Graesser, A. C, Olde, B., and Klettke, B. (2002). How does the mind construct and represent stories?. In Green, Melanie C., Strange, Jeffrey J., and Brock, Timothy C. (Eds). Narrative Impact: Social and cognitive foundations. pp. 229-262, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Trabasso, T. and Sperry, L. L. (1985). Causal Relatedness and Importance of Story Events. Journal of Memory and Language, vol. 24, pp. 595-611.
Narrative Comprehension, Casuality, and Coherence: Essays in Honor of Tom Trabasso. (1999). (Eds) Susan R. Goldman, Arthur C. Graesser, Paul Van Den Broek. Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 1999.
O'Brien, E. J., and Myers, J. L. (1999). Text comprehension: A view from the bottom up. In Goldman, S. R., Graesser, A. C., and Trabasso, T. (eds.), Narrative Comprehension, Causality, and Coherence: Essays in Honor of Tom Trabasso, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 35-55.
van den Broek, P. (1988). The effects of causal relations and hierarchical position on the importance of story statements. Journal of Memory and Language, 27, 1-22.
Gerrig, R.J. (1993). Experiencing Narrative Worlds: On the Psychological Activities of Reading . New Haven: Yale University Press.
Black, J.B. & Bower, G.H. (1980). Story understanding as problem-solving. Poetics, 9.
Sylvia Pantaleo. (2004). The Long, Long Way: Young Children Explore the Fabula and Syuzhet of Shortcut. Children¡®s Literature in Education. Volume 35, Number 1, pp. 1-20.
Analysis Rimmon-Kenan, S. (2002). Narrative Fiction: Contemporary Poetics. New York: Metheun, Routledge.
Chatman, S. (1978). Story and Discourse: narrative structure in fiction and film. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.
Freytag, G. (1863). The Technique of the Drama. (Johnston Reprint Corp. 1968).
Prince, G. (1987). A Dictionary of Narratology. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.
Propp, V. (1968). Morphology of the folktale. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press.
Michael Toolan. (2001). Narrative: A Critical Linguistic Introduction. Second Edition. London: Routledge.
Susan Onega and Jose Angel Garcia Landa, editors. (1996). Narratology: An Introduction. London: Longman.
Bal, M. (1997). Narratology: Introduction to the theory of Narrative . Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Narrative Intelligence Bruner, J. (1991). The Narrative Construction of Reality. Critical Inquiry, Vol. 18, No. 1. (Autumn, 1991), pp. 1-21.
Mateas and Sengers (Eds.) (2003). Narrative Intelligence. John Benjamins Publishing Co. [link]

Psychology / Cognition

Reasoning Bratman, M.E., Israel, D.J., & Pollack, M.E.(1988). Plans and resource-bounded practical reasoning. Computational Intelligence, 4(4), 349-355.
Mary Jo Rattermanna, Lee Spectorb, Jordan Grafmanc, Harvey Levind, Harriet Harwarde. (2001). Partial and total-order planning: evidence from normal and prefrontally damaged populations. Cognitive Science 25, 941-975.
M. Bratman. (1990). "What is intention?" In Cohen, Morgan and Pollack (eds.) Intentions in Communication. MIT Press. Chapter 2.
Intention Barbara J. Grosz and Candace L. Sidner. (1986). Attention, intentions, and the structure of discourse. Computational Linguistics, Volume 12, Issue 3, Pages: 175 - 204.
Allen, J.F. & Perrault, C.R. (1980). Analyzing intention in utterances. Artificial Intelligence, 15(3), 143-178.
Lambert, L. & Carberry, S. (1991). A tripartite plan-based model of dialogue. In Proceedings of the 29th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Berkely CA, June 1991.
Suspense Brewer, W. F. (1996). The nature of narrative suspense and the problem of rereading. In P. Vorderer, H. J. Wulff, & M. Friedrichsen (Eds.), Suspense: Conceptualizations, theoretical analyses, and empirical explorations, pp. 107-127, Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Brewer, W. F. and Ohttsuka, K.(1988). Story structure, characterization, just world organization, and reader affect in American and Hungarian short stories. Poetics, 17, 395-415.
Gerrig, R. J. (1996). The Resiliency of Suspense. In P. Vorderer, H. J. Wulff, & M. Friedrichsen (Eds.), Suspense: Conceptualizations, theoretical analyses, and empirical explorations, pp. 93-105, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gerrig, R., and Bernardo, D. (1994) Readers as problem-solvers in the experience of suspense. Poetics 1994;22, pp. 459-472.
Vorderer, P. (1996). Toward a Psychological Theory of Suspense. In Peter Vorderer, Hans J. Wulff, and Mike Friedrichsen (Eds.), Suspense: Conceptualizations, Theoretical Analyses, and Empirical Explorations, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
David Christian and R. Michael Young. (2004). Comparing Cognitive and Computational Models of Narrative Structure. in the Proceedings of the National Conference of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence.


James E. Zull. (2002). The art of changing the brain: enriching teaching by exploring the biology of learning.
Learning happens everywhere and changes the grain. Practice, emotion. Don't explain (demo, metaphore, story). Use the whole Brain. Riedl, M.O, & Young, R.M. (2004). A planning approach to story generation for history education. In Proceedings of the 2004 Conference on Narrative and Interactive Learning Environments.
Niehaus, James and Young, R. Michael. (2005). Toward improving recall and comprehension in automatically generated narratives. in Working Notes of the Workshop on Narrative Learning Environments at the Twelfth International Conference on Artificial Ingelligence and Education Amsterdam, The Netherlands.


Machine Learning
J.Ross Quinlan. (1993). C4.5: Programs for Machine Learning. Morgan Kaufman.
Van der Hoek, W. and Lomuscio, A. (2004). A Logic for Ignorance. In Declarative Agent Languages and Technologies (DALT), J. Leite, A. Omicini, L. Sterling and P Torroni (Eds), LNAI 2990, pp. 97 - 108.
Joseph Y. Halpern. (1995). Reasoning about knowledge: a survey, Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Vol. 4, D. Gabbay, C. J. Hogger, and J. A. Robinson, eds., Oxford University Press, pp. 1-34.
Edmund H. Durfee. (1995). Blissful Ignorance: Knowing Just Enough to Coordinate Well. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Multi-Agent Systems (ICMAS), pages 406-413, June 1995.

Narrative Theory

Thanks to Dr. David Herman for his ENG532 class, Spring 2004
Keywords: cognitive narratology, psychonarratology, analysis, social, face-to-face

Analysis / Structure / Definition

Analysis Herman, D. (1999). Narratologies: New Perspectives on Narrative Analysis. Columbus: Ohio State University Press. Introduction (pp. 1-14).
Herman. (2005). typescript of "Structuralist Narratology." To appear in David Herman, Manfred Jahn, and Marie-Laure Ryan, eds., The Routledge Encyclopedia of Narrative Theory. London: Routledge.
Genette, G. (1980). Narrative Discourse. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Polkinghorne, D. (1988) chapter 2 and 6 of Narrative Knowing and the Human Sciences. Albany: SUNY Press.
A.-J. Greimas. (1983). Structural Semantics: An Attempt at a Method. pp. 197-213. First publ. as Semantique structurale: Recherche de methode (1966).
Steven Schneider. (Harvard University). The Paradox of Fiction, from the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Hayden White, "The Value of Narrativity in the Representation of Reality" (in Onega and Landa, pp. 273-85).
Marie-Laure Ryan. Narrative and the Split Condition of Digital Textuality.
North Pole (experimental digital text), temperate zone, tropic (mass players). Ludos (competition centered) and Paida (free play). To satisfy the temprate zone users, the current games need rich narrative, conversation, emotion, complex personality abled characters, and need to concern beyond surface.
DefinitionGerald Prince. (1995). "Narratology" The Cambridge History of Literary Criticism, vol. 8, edited by Raman Selden, pp. 110-30, 421-25. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Mieke Bal. (1985). Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative. Trans. Christine van Boheemen. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Psycho / Cognitive Narratology

Cognitive Narratology Herman, D. (2000). Narratology as a cognitive science. Image and Narrative.
Herman, D. (2003). "Introduction" to Narrative Theory and the Cognitive Sciences (pp. 1-14). Stanford, CA: CSLI Publications.
Herman, D. (2002). "Introduction" to Story Logic: Problems and Possibilities of Narrative (pp. 1-24). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Ryan, M. (1985). "The Modal Structure of Narrative Universes." Poetics Today 6.4 (1985): 717-55.
Ryan, M. (1991). Possible Worlds, Artificial Intelligence and Narrative Theory. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Jerome Bruner. (1991). "The Narrative Construction of Reality." Critical Inquiry 18 (1991): 1-21.
Palmer, Alan. (2004). Fictional Minds. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
ComprehensionEmmott, C. chapters 1, 4, and 5 of Narrative Comprehension: A Discourse Perspective. Oxford University Press.
PsychonarratologyBortolussi, Marisa and Dixon, Peter. (2003). Psychonarratology: Foundations for the Empirical Study of Literary Response. Cambridge University Press.

Multimedia Narrative

Computer as a medium Ryan, M. (2001). chapter 7 of Narrative as Virtual Reality (pp. 204-24). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Ryan, M.(1999). chapter 4: Cyberage Narratology. In David Herman, ed., Narratologies: New Perspectives on Narrative Analysis, pp. 113-41. Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
Coverly, Fibonacci's Daughter.
FilmBordwell. Narration in Fiction Film.

Conversational / Face-to-Face / Social Narrative

Conversational Storytelling Edwards, (1997). Structure and Function in the Analysis of Everyday Narratives. Narrative inquiry. vol:7, iss:1, pg:139.
Labov, W.(1972). The Transformation of Experience in Narrative Syntax. Language in the Inner City, pp. 354-96. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Fleischman, S. (1997). "The 'Labovian Model' Revisited with Special Consideration of Literary Narrative." Journal of Narrative and Life History 7.1-4 (1997): 159-68.
Marjorie Harness Goodwin, chapters 9 and 10 of He-Said-She-Said: Talk as Social Organization among Black Children. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1990.
Fludernik, M. chapters 2 (excerpt) and 3 of Towards a "Natural" Narratology. London: Routledge, 1996.
Emanuel Schegloff. (1997). "'Narrative Analysis' Thirty Years Later." Journal of Narrative and Life History 7.1-4 (1997): 97-106.
Gail Jefferson. (1978). "Sequential Aspects of Storytelling in Conversation." In Jim Schenkein, ed., Strategies in the Organization of Conversational Interaction, pp. 219-48. New York: Academic Press.
Elinor Ochs and Lisa Capps (2001). chapter 1 of Living Narrative: Creating Lives in Everyday Storytelling (pp. xi, xii, and 1-58). Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP.
Buttny, "Sequences and Practical Reasoning".
Wolfson, "A Feature of Performed Narrative: The Conversational Historical Present"
SocialMandelbaum, J. (1987). Couples Sharing Stories. Communication quarterly, vol:35, iss:2, pg:144
Mandelbaum, J. (1993). Assigning responsibility in conversational storytelling: The interactional construction of reality. Text, 13, 247-266.
Alison Preece. (1992). "Collaborators and Critics: The Nature and Effects of Peer Interaction on Children's Conversational Narratives." Journal of Narrative and Life History 2.3 (1992): 277-92.
Neal Norrick. (1997). "Twice-told Tales: Collaborative Narration of Familiar Stories." Language in Society 26 (1997): 199-220.
Feminism / Audience Susan S. Lanser. (1986) "Toward a Feminist Narratology." Style 20.3 (1986): 341-63.
Rabinowitz. "Truth in Fiction: A Reexamination of Audiences"
Gesture Cassell, J. and McNeill, D. (1991). "Gesture and the Poetics of Prose." Poetics Today 12.3 (1991): 375-404.
McNeill, D. "Introduction" to Language and Gesture, pp. 1-10. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 2000.
Haviland, J. (2000). "Pointing, Gesture Spaces, and Mental Maps." In David McNeill, ed., Language and Gesture, pp. 13-46. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.
Zubin, D.A. and Hewitt, L.E., "The Deictic Center: A Theory of Deixis in Narrative." In Judith F. Duchan, Gail A. Bruder, and Lynne E. Hewitt, eds., Deixis in Narrative: A Cognitive Science Perspective, pp. 129-55. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1995.
N. Chovil. (1992). Discourse-oriented facial displays in conversation. Research on Language and Social Interaction 25, pp. 163-194.
M. Argyle, R. Ingham, F. Alkema and M. McCallin. (1973). The Different Functions of Gaze. Semiotica.
E. McClave. (2000). Linguistic functions of head movements in the context of speech. Journal of Pragmatics 32, pp. 855-878.


Story Writing Ansen Dibell, (1999). Plot (Elements of Fiction Writing). Writer's Digest Books.
Nancy Kress, (1999). Beginnings, Middles & Ends (Elements of Fiction Writing). Writer's Digest Books.


TextEdith Wharton. "Roman Fever" (originally published in 1934). In R. W. B. Lewis, ed., The Selected Short Stories of Edith Wharton, pp. 342-52. New York: Scribner's, 1991.
FilmDavid Lynch's Lost Highway.
OralTranscript of story discussed in D. Herman, "Toward a Transmedial Narratology." In Marie-Laure Ryan, ed., Narrative across Media: The Languages of Storytelling. Lincoln: U of Nebraska P, 2004.

Image & Narrative
International Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Intelligent Agents

Thanks to Dr. James Lester for his CSC725, Spring 2005 at NCSU
DISCLAIMER: Some parts under this section are not quite related to the computatinoal narratology.
Keywords: planning, story, mediation, agent, emotion, intention, narrative, comprehension, NLP, pedagogy, AI

Intelligent Environment

Reading The Computer for the 21st Century
Smart Space Laboratory [link]
Smart Rooms [link]
Coen, M.H. (1998). Design Principles for Intelligent Environments. AAAI/IAAI.
M Coen, B Phillips, N Warshawsky, L Weisman, S. (1999). Meeting the Computational Needs of Intelligent Environments: The Metaglue System. Proceedings of MANSE¡¯99.
Stephen Peters and Howard E. Shrobe. (2003). Using Semantic Networks for Knowledge Representation in an Intelligent Environment. PerCom, 2003.
K Koile, K Tollmar, D Demirdjian, H Shrobe, T.. (2003). Activity Zones for Context-Aware Computing. Internation Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, (2003).


Dialog agent
Mott, M., Callaway, C., Zettlemoyer, L., Lee, S., and Lester, J. (1999). Towards Narrative-Centered Learning Environments. Working Notes of the 1999 AAAI Fall Symposium on Narrative Intelligence, pp. 78-82, Cape Cod, MA.
Ryokai K., Vaucelle C, and Cassell J. (2003). Virtual peers as partners in storytelling and literacy learning. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 195-208(14)
Hill, R. W., Gratch, J., Marsella, S., Rickel, J., Swartout, W., and Traum, D. (2003). Virtual Humans in the Mission Rehearsal Exercise System, Kunstliche Intelligenz (Special Issue on Embodied Conversational Agents).
Susan W. McRoy, Syed S. Ali, Angelo Restificar, Songsak Channarukul. (1999). Building intelligent dialog systems. Intelligence, Volume 10, Number 1 (1999), Pages 14-23.
\ Michael F. Mctear. (2002). Spoken Dialogue Technology: Enabling the Conversational User Interface. ACM Computing Surveys, 2002.
PARIS, C. L. (1989). The use of explicit user models in a generation system for tailoring answers to the user's level of expertise. In User Models in Dialog Systems, A. Kobsa and W. Wahlster, Eds. Springer Verlag, London, UK, 200-232.
CollaborationJ Rickel, WL Johnson. (2000). Task-Oriented Collaboration with Embodied Agents in Virtual Worlds. Embodied Conversational Agents, 2000.
Gesture Cassell, J. (2000). Nudge Nudge Wink Wink: Elements of Face-to-Face Conversation for Embodied Conversational Agents. Embodied Conversational Agents, 2000.
WL Johnson, JW Rickel, JC Lester. (2000). Animated Pedagogical Agents: Face-to-Face Interaction in Interactive Learning Environments. International Journal of Artificial Intelligence, 2000.
JC Lester, SG Towns, CB Callaway, JL Voerman, PJ . (2001). Deictic and Emotive Communication in Animated Pedagogical Agents. Embodied conversational agents table of contents.

Virtual Human

General K Yamane, JJ Kuffner, JK Hodgins. (2004). Synthesizing Animations of Human Manipulation Tasks. ACM Transactions on Graphics.
G Sukthankar, M Mandel, K Sycara, JK Hodgins. (2004). Modeling Physical Capabilities of Humanoid Agents Using Motion Capture Data. Proceedings of Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems.

Augmented Reality

General Jim VAllino Introduction to Augmented Reality. [link]
A Webster, S Feiner, B MacIntyre, W Massie, T. (1996). Augmented Reality in Architectural Construction, Inspection, and Renovation. Computing in Civil Engineering.
Ed Kaiser, Alex Olwal, David McGee, Hrvoje Benko, Andrea Corradini, Xiaoguang Li, Phil Cohen, Steven Feiner. (2003). Mutual Disambiguation of 3D Multimodal Interaction in Augmented and VirtualReality. ICMI-PUI '03.

Multimodal interface

Dialogue S Oviatt, P Cohen. (2000). Multimodal Interfaces That Process What Comes Naturally. Communications of the ACM, Volume 43, Number 3 (2000), Pages 45-53.
Sharon Oviatt. (2002). Multimodal Interfaces. Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction, (ed. by J. Jacko & A. Sears), Lawrence Erlbaum: New Jersey.
Sharon Oviatt. (2001). Advances in the Robust Processing of Multimodal Speech and Pen Systems. Multimodal Interfaces for Human Machine Communication (ed. by P. C. Yuen & T. Y. Yan), World Scientific Publisher: London, UK, (Series on Machine Perception and Artificial Intelligence).
L Wu, SL Oviatt, PR Cohen. (2002). From Members to Teams to Committee: A Robust Approach to Gestural and Multimodal Recognition. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks.
JF Allen, G Ferguson, A Stent. (2001). An Architecture for More Realistic Conversational Systems. IUI 2001.
N Blaylock, J Allen, G Ferguson. (2002). Managing Communicative Intentions with Collaborative Problem Solving. Current and New Directions in Discourse and Dialogue.
J. Allen et. al. (1994).The TRAINS Project: a case study in building a conversational planning agent. Technical Note 94-3, University of Rochester, Computer Science Department.
CMU Communicator Rudnicky, A.I., Thayer, E., Constantinides, P., Tchou, C., Shern, R., Lenzo, K., Xu W., Oh, A.. (1999). Creating Natural Dialogs in the Carnegie Mellon Communicator System. Proceedings of Eurospeech, 1999.
Wei Xu and Alexander I. Rudnicky. (2000). Task-Based Dialog Management Using an Agenda. ANLP/NAACL 2000 Workshop on Conversational Systems, May.
Intelligent Interface Tools Robert St. Amant and Thomas E. Horton. Tool-based direct manipulation environments.
Robert St. Amant and Ajay Dudani. An Environment for User Interface Softbots.

User Modeling

IntroductionG Fischer. (2001). User Modeling in Human-Computer Interaction. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction.
Machine LearningGI Webb, MJ Pazzani, D Billsus. (2001). Machine Learning for User Modeling. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction.
Student Modeling I Zukerman, DW Albrecht. (2001). Predictive Statistical Models for User Modeling. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction.
A Bunt, C Conati. (2003). Probabilistic Student Modeling to Improve Exploratory Behavior. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction.
C Conati, A Gertner, K VanLehn. (2002). Using Bayesian Networks to Manage Uncertainty in Student Modeling. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction.
Web-based Bernardo Magnini and Carlo Strapparava. (2004). User Modelling for News Websites with Word Sense Based Techniques. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction, Volume 14, Issue 2-3.
D Pierrakos, G Paliouras, C Papatheodorou, CD. (2003). Web Usage Mining as a Tool for Personalization: A Survey. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction.
M Maybury, W Greiff, S Boykin, J Ponte, C McHenry. (2004). Personalcasting: Tailored Broadcast News. User Modeling and User-Adapted Interaction.